One of the human’s primary needs is food. To meet the sufficiency of food in terms of calories and nutrition is a human right. Therefore; the goal of food security becomes the state’s mandatory program to guarantee all citizens have sufficient, safe, and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. The World Health Organization defines three main dimensions of food security, namely food availability, food access and food utilization. The availability of food is the ability to have a sufficient food for basic needs. Access to food is the ability to have the resources, both economically and physically, to get nutritious food. Utilization of food is the ability to utilize food properly and proportionally. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) added the fourth dimensions, namely the stability of these three components in a long period of time.
World Health Organization and FAO, with the four main dimensions of the food security, do not specialize whether the food security concept has to be attained by the ability to produce food independently or by importing. Since 2012 Indonesia has believed that food security must be attained independently and by sovereignty. Independence means that the state and the nation must be able to produce diverse domestic food to ensure the sufficiency even to an individual level by utilizing all potentials of natural, human, social, economic, and local wisdom resources wisely (Indonesia Law No.18 About Food 2012). All of these have to be done with full sovereignty meaning that Indonesia has the authority to independently decide about food policies that ensure people’ right to get food and to determine the food system in accordance with the potential of local resources (Indonesia Law No. 18 On Food 2012).
For the passed few years the food situation in Indonesia has not been satisfying yet. Although the data from 1990 to 2013 indicated that the number of people who were undernourished fell from 46.3% to only 9.1% of the total population of Indonesia, the numberwas still large since it is accounting 22.3 million people (FAO, 2013). Mean while, in 2012, the data showed that Indonesia still imported1.8 million tons of rice, 1.7 million tons of corn, 1.9 million tons of soybeans, 91.1 thousand tons of sugar and 40.3 thousand tons of beef(www.beranda.miti.co.id). In addition to the main products, Indonesia was still importing other important food products. Indonesia was estimated to deplete the country’s foreign exchange amounted to 125 trillion rupiah per year to import food products (Sibuea, 2013). The data showed that Indonesia has not reached the resilience and self-sufficiency of food.
Based on cattle, food security of Indonesia has not reached the stage of self-sufficiency either. This was evidenced by the data of imported beef which reached 40.3 tons in 2012. To meet the needs of livestock and related products, attention to growth, health, and productivity of the livestock must be taken as a special priority. These aspects are closely related to animal nutrition. Thus the animal nutrition compliance program should be developed in order to ensure that the animals receive proper nutrients in the right quantities and the right time.
As in the food sector situation, Indonesia has not attained the energy resilience and independence either. Approximately 50% of national energy needs is derived from petroleum and more than a one third of the fossil fuel is still imported. Therefore, it is necessary to develop sources of new and renewable energy to reduce the dependence on petroleum. National energy policy stipulates that by 2025 the national energy needs are sourced from 20% oil, 30% gas, 33% coal and 17% of renewable energy, and biofuels are planned to contribute 5% of the national energy demand (Presidential Decree No. 5 of 2006). Contribution of biomass energy sources, together with nuclear, hydro, wind, and solar, is planned by 5% (Presidential Decree No. 5 of 2006). Here the agricultural sector will play an important role to gain the target of national energy needs.
Corresponding to the issue of food, feed and energy, the Indonesian Association of Agricultural Engineering (Perteta) Lampung branch held a seminar with the theme “Strengthening Food Security, Feed, and Energy Sustainably To Enhance Competitiveness”. This seminar aims to communicate and gather thoughts, ideas, research, and experiences from policy makers, researchers, and practitioners dealing with issues on agricultural based sustainability in the attainment of food self-sufficiency, feed, and energy development